更多 发布于:2008-05-27 13:16
Volapük Vifik: Lärnod Lulid"It's all (or mainly) in the past..."Just in the same way as part five follows the last part of our coursein Volapük, so does one hour, one day, one week, one month, one yearsucceed the previous one. As time passes, there is no doubt whatever thatour present is becoming less and less, while our past is gradually becomingand more, and still more.
logob = I see (now)
elogob = I've seen, or I saw (a moment ago/yesterday/last week/lastmonth/last year)
In Volapük, events are considered either to be still happening,or else to have already happened within a longer or shorter time span.In order to fully appreciate all this, ideally we get into our special'time capsule' and become 'part of the action.' In fact, the word 'tense'is how we describe the 'time factor' in words called VERBS (denoting status, being, becoming or action)
In the example given above, elogob (I've seen/I saw) impinges muchmore on the present. For this reason, it is used for chatting about every-dayhappenings: it is essentially the PAST connected with the PRESENT for us.
However, there is another kind of PAST which is more remote: if we say"I saw him last year", the same excitement seems to have beenlost somewhat; perhaps it's another way of saying "I used to see him",or even "I had seen him". In fact, it is the past becoming evermore and more remote, even becoming in our judgment historical. Look atthese two examples:
Adelo logob oli = To-day I see you (now);
Klu, elogob oli = so, I've seen you! (just finished)
Ädelo älogob oli = Yesterday I saw you (at that time);
Klu, ilogob oli = I'd seen you! (over and done with)
 Do you see now the first couple refer to the 'here and now' and the'immediate past', whereas the second couple concern the more distant past?
We therefore see that the PRESENT TENSE has no initial vowel to signalthe here and now; this is reserved in modern Volapük for words whichsignify the idea of time in themselves, such as del = day in the examples.As we know already, the PRESENT PERFECT is indicated by the initial vowelE- and now we learn that the vowel Ä- indicates the PAST DEFINITE aand the vowel I- takes us still further back into the past! Again, just to recap, if the ACTOR (I/we; you, he/she; one; it/they)is doing something to the VICTIM (animate/inanimate beings or things);this is termed ACTIVE, whereas if we prefer to say "you are seen (byme)", then it is no longer active, but PASSIVE! We are familiar withthe Passive in Volapük already - now just see how all the rest followson so regularly:
Palogol (fa ob) = you are seen (by me);
Pelogol (fa ob) = you've been seen (by me);
Pälogol (fa ob) = you were seen (by me);
Pilogol (fa ob) = you had been seen (by me)
Thus does the PRESENT merge into the IMMEDIATE PAST, then into the DEFINITEPAST, and finally into the COMPLETE PAST How time flies!


发布于:2008-05-27 13:16
Welcome to the fifth part of our rapid, inter-active course in VolapükVifik in which we start, as usual, with some more words for you to practiseout loud:  

bäldik = old
bäldot = age (= number of years)  
bel = a mountain  
benö! = fine!  
bevü = between  
boso = somewhat  
bukiselidöp = a bookshop  
dalabön = to own, to possess  
das (conjunction) = that  
demü = on account of  
dilekanef = management  
domio = (to) home  
dönulogö! = au revoir!  
düp = an hour  
düpalaf = half-an-hour  
fiam = a firm  
fino = at last  
foldeg = forty  
foldil = a quarter  
fümo = for sure  
glid = a greeting  
glidön = to greet  
golön = to go  
jenöfo = in fact  
jinön = to appear, to seem  
juitön = to enjoy  
kif ?/kim? = who? (masc. and fem.)  
kikodo? = why?  
kipladio? = where to? whither?  
klülön = to be clear  
kodü = because of  
kolkömön = to meet  
kotenükön = to satisfy, make happy  
laidareman = a regular buyer  
läbik = lucky, happy  
länädio = (into) the country (side)  
liegikan = a rich person  

löfäb = a loved one  
lomio = homewards  
lut = air  
mated = a marriage  
matikön = to get married  
matirajanan (hi/ji) = a fiancé(e)  
memön = to remember  
mon = cash, money  
mödikna = many times  
mödo = a great deal, a lot  
mu = extremely  
neai = never  
no latikolöd = don't be late!  
no nog = not yet  
patik = special  
pos = after (=time)  
poso = afterwards  
pöfikan = a poor person  
primön = to begin, to start  
prüdö! = take care!  
pul (hi/ji) = a youngster, a youth  
sevön = to know  
spelön = to hope  
spidön = to hurry  
spikot = a conversation  
sülö! = good heavens!  
suvo = often  
takädön = to relax  
tävön = to travel  
te = only  
tedabüsid = (general) business  
tikön = to think  
tü = at, on (= time)  
us = there  
(in) valem = (in) general  
ye = however  
yel = a year
发布于:2008-05-27 13:16
DAVID: Glidis, o Katlin!
KATLIN: Glidis ole, o David! Kipladio golol-li?
DAVID: Golob domio ela Samül - ed ol-li?
KATLIN: Ün timül at, golob lomio; poso spelob ad visitönziomi oba.
DAVID: Lio panemom-li?
KATLIN: Panemom Karl e binom liegikan.
DAVID: Binom-li bäldik? Klülos, das labom moni mödik.
KATLIN: Fümo no binom pöfikan; ye vobom ai: labom domi nilüzif, e tävom suvo länädio ad juitön belaluti us.
DAVID: Lifayelis liomödotik labom-li?
KATLIN: Tikob, das labom bäldoti yelas foldeg.
DAVID: Binom-li matan?
KATLIN: No nog, bi neai binom libü tedabüsid; ab fino labomjifleni mu patiki - binons anu matirajanans!
DAVID: O löfäbs läbik! Benö! Düp kinid binos-li?
KATLIN: Binos düpalaf pos lul. Kikodo?
DAVID: Sülö! Mutob spidön, bi vilob kolkömöneli Samül tü foldil bü düp mälid.
KATLIN: Dönulogö! No latikolöd! Prüdö!

1. Translate the above dialogue into English.
2. Answer the following questions in Volapük:
    [*]Kim glidom-li jieli Katlin?[*]Kipladio golof-li anu?[*]Kipladio spelof-li ad golön poso? (ziom OKA = her (own) uncle)[*]Lio panemof-li jiflen ela Katlin?[*]Kim binom-li el Karl?[*]Düp kinid binos-li?[*]Kikodo el David mutom-li spidön?[*]E hiflen ela David, kim binom-li?
3. Describe KARL in twenty words in Volapük.
4. In Volapük this is how we count from 20 to 30:
Teldeg; teldegbal; teldegtel; teldegkil; teldegfol; teldeglul; teldegmäl;  
20       21         22         23         24         25         26
teldegvel; teldegjöl; teldegzül; kildeg.    
27         28         29        30
And still further and further from forty to ninety:-
foldeg; luldeg; mäldeg; veldeg; jöldeg; züldeg  
40      50      60      70      80      90
Write in Volapük:
32, 45, 57, 68, 71, 84, 99
发布于:2008-05-27 13:17

David: Glidis dönu! Ya sevol obi: panemob David e binobbalan flenas ela Samül. Ädelo ägolob domio oma,ven ekolkömob jieli Katlin; omemol sio, das binof flen jielaJanin, söra ela Samül.  

Benö! Bi äbinos te düp lulid soara, eprimobs ad spikönode dö balan röletanas ofa. Jinos, das man at ya labom moni mödik,ed etuvob lifi omik mu nitediki!  

Jenöfo, tü düpalaf pos lul emutob spidön!  

Katlin: Glidis dönu! I sevol obi ya! Binob Katlin, balanflenas ela Janin.  

Ädelo ekolkömob eli David, kel ägolom domio flenaomik, ed eprimobs ad bespikön dinis in valem. Poso, ye, emäniotob,das spelob ad visitön hikösti liegik oba, hieli Karl,ed el David ävilom sevön bosi plu tefü om. Jenöfo,äspikobs ode dü düpalaf lölik; Sekü atos, el Davidämutom spidön ad no latikön!  

Karl: Glidis! Nem oba binon Karl; binob blod yunik de fat elaKatlin, e lödob in zif gretik nilo, kö dalabob domi smalik.Binob büsidan, e kodü at, vobob mödo, bi bilob ai kotenüköni laidaremanis, i dilekanefi fiama: labob bäldoti yelas foldegkil.

Mödikna tävob ko matirajanan oba länädio ad juitönbelaluti us.  

Maxin: Glidis! Panemob Maxin. Binob jiflen patik hiela Karl- jenöfo binob matirajanan oma!  

Labob lifayelis kildegjöl e vobob ün timül at as yufanin bukiselidöp, bi enitedälob ai demü buks valasotik!  

Karl ed ob, spelobs ad matikön ünü yels tel.El Karl neai binom libü tedabüsid, ab suvo tävobslänädio ad juitön luti gudik us, e ad takädönboso in top jönik at. Dalabom domi in zif, e pos mated obas, desinobsad lödön us.