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West Frisian grammar (转自维基百科)

楼主#
更多 发布于:2013-03-06 12:37
以下是转自维基百科的资料:

Nouns:



1. Gender


In West Frisian, nouns have two grammatical genders - the common gender (in which the former masculine and feminine gender merged) and the neuter gender. In the modern language, nouns have no morphological modifiers of their gender and it is only exposed when a noun is preceded by an article or another modifier: de taal (the language) ~ it lân (the land).

2. Number


West Frisian nouns have two numbers - singular and plural. There are two major suffixes used to form the plural: "-(e)n" and "-s". The suffix "-s" is appended to plural nouns that end (in the singular) with "-el", "-em", "-en", "-er", "-ert", "-ier", "-mer", "-ter", "-ster", "-sje". It can also appear after the diminutive suffix "-je" or at the end of a borrowed word.
wurd - wurden, boarne - boarnen, doar - doarren, see - seeën
hoekje - hoekjes, skrapke - skrapkes, provinsje - provinsjes

A few nouns have irregular plural forms:
bern (child) - bern, skiep (sheep) - skiep, ko (cow) - kij, skoech (shoe) - skuon, beest (beast) - bisten, dei (day) - dagen, wei (way) - wegen, lid (member) - leden, reed (skate) - redens, lears (boot) - learzen, âlder (parent, elder) - âlden, man (man) - mânlju, frou (woman) - froulju.

3. Case


The initial system of four grammatical cases (nominative, genitive, dative and accusative) has not survived in modern Frisian. The only remainder of the old declension system is the genitive case which may still be used in written Frisian. It is mostly used nowadays as a Possessive form (rather than true genitive).

The genitive form may have one of the following two endings: "-(e)" or "-(e)s".

The ending "-(e)" ("-e" or zero) is used with monosyllabic nouns ending with a consonant or the vowel "-e". Also, it may be used with kinship terms and some plural nouns (mostly in idiomatic, fixed expressions): Ruerde mêm (Ruerd's mom), memme mûs (mom's mouse), fammene pronkjen (the girls' talk).
In most other cases, the "-(e)s" ending is used: har mans bern (her man's child(ren)), Fryslâns wâlden (Frisland's forests).

In the spoken language, genitive forms are rare and normally replaced by analytical constructions with the preposition "fan (of)" or a possessive pronoun: de heit fan Anneke (Anneke's father), Anneke har heit (-//-, lit. Anneke her father).

Verbs


In West Frisian, there are 3 groups of verbs: weak, strong and irregular verbs. There are two types of weak verbs and both types are conjugated in a different way. These are -e and -je verbs.

Weak -e verbs


-e infinitive: pakk1e-n infinitive: pakken
Present tensePast tense
personsingularpluralsingularplural
1stikpakwypakk1eikpakt2ewypakt2en
2nddo/dûpakstjimmedo/dûpakt2estjimme
3rdhy/sy/itpakthjahy/sy/itpakt2ehja
Present participleImperativeAuxiliaryPast participle
pakk1endepakhawwepakt2

1 If necessary a consonant at the end of the stem is doubled to avoid a change of the pronunciation of the preceding syllable.
2 An unvoiced consonant at the end of the stem takes an unvoiced dental suffix; a voiced consonant takes a voiced dental.

Weak -je verbs


-e infinitive: wurkje-n infinitive: wurkjen
Present tensePast tense
personsingularpluralsingularplural
1stikwurkjewywurkjeikwurkewywurken
2nddo/dûwurkestjimmedo/dûwurkestjimme
3rdhy/sy/itwurkethjahy/sy/itwurkehja
Present participleImperativeAuxiliaryPast participle
wurkjendewurkjehawwewurke


The Auxiliaries


-e infinitive: hawwe-n infinitive: hawwen
Present tensePast tense
personsingularpluralsingularplural
1stikhawyhawweikhiewyhiene(n)
2nddo/dûhastjimmedo/dûhiestjimme
3rdhy/sy/ithathjahy/sy/ithiehja
学习外语,纯属爱好。能力有限,爱好无限。
沙发#
发布于:2013-03-06 15:14
谢谢
据说维基百科里有 弗英字典
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