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[语言交流]世界语的词序规则

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更多 发布于:2010-06-30 22:36
<DIV><SPAN style="COLOR: #000080; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体"><FONT size=4>王 崇 芳</FONT></SPAN>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>  </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">世界语的词序是比较自由的。例如,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "Johano amas Marion" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">和</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "Marion amas Johano" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">所表达的意思都是</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">约翰爱玛丽</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">。这两句话之所以意思相同,是因为在世界语中决定句意的主要因素不是词序而是名词的格和其他语法手段。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>  </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">世界语的词序虽然灵活,但这并不意味着我们可以任意按排句中各个成分的位置。这种灵活性只是相对的。在正常情况下,世界语和汉语一样,也应该按照</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">主语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">-</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">谓语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">-</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">宾语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">这一大多数语言中的习惯框架来安排词序。如果改变这个词序,就会产生种种感情、文体和意思上的细微差别。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>  </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">世界语词序安排的总原则是:有直接关系的句子成分应尽可能靠近。主要规则如下:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>1. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">主语应尽可能靠近谓语。可以插在主语和谓语之间的成分只有:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">由副词构成的状语(因为这种状语与谓语动词有直接关系而且形式一般比较短小)。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i bele kantas. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">她唱歌唱得很动听。(需要强调时可以把</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">bele</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">置于句首:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Bele </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i kantas.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">由人称代词构成的直接宾语(这种宾语应避免置于句末)。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Finfine mi lin trovis. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我终于找到了他。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>  </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">有的人会感到奇怪,为什么在世界语名家的文体中会常常碰到把宾格代词嵌在主语和谓语之间呢?这主要是从文体和语音优美的角度来考虑的。一般来说,句末和句首一样,是句子成分的强调位置,需要突出的句子成分通常可以置于句末。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Mi atendis Petron, sed venis lia frato. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(我等待彼得,但来的却是他的兄弟)。句末尤其适合单音节词的强调,因为放在句末的单音节词通常紧接在轻读音节之后,可以很自然地获得节奏重音,而且在它之后还会出现短暂的停顿。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">La afero aran</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">is de mi. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(那件事是我安排的)。但这种节奏重音对于不需要强调的</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">min, vin, lin, </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in, </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in, nin</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">通常是不可取的,因为这类单音节词的使用极高,如果把它们放在句末,就可能出现连续好几个句子都以宾格代词结尾的现象,给人以一种单调感和令人不快的押韵感(散文中一般是不宜押韵的)。因此,为了获得优美和谐的语音效果,最好把人称代词放在动词前,除非它们需要特意强调。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Multaj homoj nin akompanis.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 许多人陪伴我们。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Finfine mi lin trovis.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 我终于找到了他。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Se mi vin ne komprenas, kiu do povus vin kompreni?</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 如果我不了解你,谁能了解你呢?</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">2. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">谓语动词和它后面的不定式动词之间至多可以插进一个宾格的人称代词或修饰不定式动词的副词。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi volas lin vidi. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我要见他。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi ne povas tuj ekiri. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我不能立刻动身。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">但如果不定式动词的宾语是名词,则应置于不定式之后。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi volas vidi Petron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我要见彼得。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">另外,由介词词组构成的状语也不能插在谓语动词和动词不定式之间,而只能置于不定式动词之后。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi ne povas ekiri en tiu </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i momento. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我此刻不能动身。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>3. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">世界语中的复杂时态和被动语态是由</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"esti + </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">分词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">两部分构成的,形式比较笨重。为了消除或减轻这种笨重感,使句子的语音和文体优美和谐,可以在</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">esti</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">和分词之间插进一个人称代词、指示代词或词形较短的副词。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li estas </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĵ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">us veninta.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 他刚来。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Se mi estus </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in vidinta, mi estus la plej feli</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">a homo sub la suno.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 假如我见过她,我就是世界上最幸福的人了。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Se mi estus tion sciinta, tiam mi ne agus tiel krude kontra</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> li.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 假如我知道那件事,我就不会那样粗暴地对待他了。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi estas treege okupita. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我非常忙。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i estas ru</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">e vestita. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">她身穿红衣。</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">4. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">由介词词组构成的状语通常置于谓语动词或宾语之后,但有时为了强调也可以将这种状语置于句首。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>En la </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ardeno tio okazis. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">那件事是在花园里发生的。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "en la </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ardeno"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">;正常的词序是:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> Tio okazis en la </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ardeno.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Per volo vi povas superi </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iujn malfacila</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĵ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">凭借意志你可以克服一切困难。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "per volo"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">;正常的词序是:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Vi povas superi </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iujn malfacilajxojn per volo.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>5</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">.如果句中同时有直接宾语和间接宾语,其词序的安排原则是:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">短的在前,长的在后,因这这样的词序可以给人以一种稳重感。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> <BR>Mi donis al li multajn interesajn librojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我给了他许多有趣的书。(较短的间接宾语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "al li" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在前。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi donis </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in al via instruisto.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 我把它交给了你的老师。(较短的直接宾语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在前。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">为了避免歧义,在某些情况下应该将间接宾语置于直接宾语之前。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi forprenis de Petro la vortaron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我从彼得那里拿走了那本词典。(句中</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "de Petro" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">放在</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "la vortaron" </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">之前,只说明从他那里拿走了一本词典;那本词典不一定就是彼得的。试比较:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> Mi forprenis la vortaron de Petro. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我拿走了彼得的词典。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>6. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">由形容词构成的定语通常置于被修饰的名词前,但在下列情况下定语也可置于名词之后。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">为了强调。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li estas poeto granda. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他是一位伟大的诗人。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> "granda"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">如果定语是由用</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">kaj</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">连接的两个(或更多的)形容词构成的(因为这类定语通常比较长)。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>li estas homo lerta kaj sperta. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他是一个灵巧而有经验的人。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>c. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">如果形容词的后面带有其他附属成分。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Sur la tablo staras glaso plena de akvo.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 桌上有一只盛满水的杯子。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li estas instruisto estimata de </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iuj kursanoj.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 他是受全体学员尊重的老师。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在某些习惯的用语中。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>lingvo internacia </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">国际语</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>d. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在某些呼语中。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>patro mia </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我的父亲</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>kara mia </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我的亲爱的</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">7. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">有些副词,(如</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ne, anka</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">, nur, e</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">, almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">, apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)应该直接放在所强调的词的前面,而另一些副词(如</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">mem, ajn</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)则应放在所强调的词的后面。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a. ne:<BR>Mi ne skribis leteron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我没有写信。(否定谓语动词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">skribas</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:他没有进行写字这一行为</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">.</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> <BR>Mi skribis ne leteron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我写的不是信。(否定</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">leteron</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:写的不是信,而是别的东西。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Ne mi skribis leteron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">不是我的写信。(否定</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">mi</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:信是别人写的,而不是我写的。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mia patro ne legas libron, sed skribas leteron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我父亲不在读书,而在写信。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mia patro legas ne libron, sed gazeton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我父亲读的不是书而是杂志。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi tute ne kredas tion. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我完全不相信那件事。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi ne tute kredas tion. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我不完全相信那件事。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b. anka</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:<BR>Mi anka</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> regalos vin. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我也要款待你。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">regalos</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是除了给予礼遇之外,我还要以酒食款待你。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi regalos anka</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> vin. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我也要款待你。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">vin</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:除款待别人外,我也要款待你。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Anka</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> mi regalos vin. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我也要款待你。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">mi</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:别人款待你,我也要款待你。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>c. nur:<BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i tie ni nur parolas Esperanton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在这里我们只讲世界语。(强调谓语动词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">parolas</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:在这里只讲世界语,不做别的事或进行其他活动。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i tie ni parolas nur Esperanton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在这里我们只讲世界语。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">Esperanton</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:不讲其他语言。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i tie nur ni parolas Esperanton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">在这里只有我们讲世界语。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ni</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:只有我们讲世界语,其他人不会讲。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Nur </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i tie ni parolas Esperanton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我们只在这里讲世界语。(强调</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i tie</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:不在别处讲,只在这里讲。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">. e</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:<BR>Li e</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> ridas pri tio. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他甚至嘲笑那件事。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ridas</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:他竟然以嘲笑的口吻提到或谈论那件事。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>E</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> li ridas pri tio. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">连他都嘲笑那件事。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">li</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:别人嘲笑,竟然他也嘲笑。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li ridas e</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> pri tio. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他连那件事都嘲笑。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">pri tio</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:那件本不该嘲笑的事,他也嘲笑起来。)</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">d. preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">: <BR>Je la oka </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iuj preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> finis sian laboron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">八点钟时所有人都几乎做完自己的工作。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Je la oka preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iuj finis sian laboron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">八点钟时几乎所有人都做完自己的工作。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> je la oka </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">iuj finis sian laboron. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">将近八点钟时所有人都做完自己的工作。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>e. almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">, apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:<BR>almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">的意思是</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">至少</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,它也必须放在被强调的词的前面。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi bezonas almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> tri horojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我至少需要三小时。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">tri horojn</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">。如果照字面直译,当然也可以译为</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我需要至少三小时</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,但这样的说法,我感到有点别扭。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> mi bezonas tri horojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">至少我需要三小时。(强调</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">mi</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,意思是:我需要三小时,但也不排除别人有这样的需要。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Tiu kesto pezas almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 10 kilogramojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">那只箱子至少重十公斤。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Vi </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ajnas almena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> tiel juna </SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">kiel via kuzino. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">你看起来至少像你堂妹一样年轻。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">有两个意思:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a) "</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">至多</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"<BR>La </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ambro entenas apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> 20 personojn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">这个房间至多容纳二十个人。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Tiu monsumo sufi</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">as apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> por kelke da tagoj. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">那笔钱只够花几天。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b) "</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">几乎不</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">= preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> ne</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> scias legi. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他几乎不识字。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Mi apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in rekonis sur la strato hiera</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> matene, </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ar </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i portis novan veston. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">我昨天早晨在街上几乎没有认出她来,因为她穿着一件新衣服。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">Ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> ne fal</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">anceli</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">is. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">她险些摔倒。(</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> ne = preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(注:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">apena</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">还可以作从属连词使用,意思是</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">刚</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">…</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">就</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">…"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,这里就不作论述了。)</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">f. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">副词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">mem</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">应该放在被强调的名词或代词的后面。它有两个作用:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a) </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">表示</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">非别人或非别的事物</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">正是这个</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">亲自</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> <BR>Ne ripro</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">u aliajn, </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ar vi mem pli multe meritas ripro</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">on. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">不要责怪别人,因为你自己更应受到责备。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Tiu </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">i problemo mem ne estas malsimpla, nur ni malsimpligis </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">这个问题本身并不复杂,只是我们把它复杂化了。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>La prezidanto mem preparas la projekton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">主席亲自拟订规划。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b) </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">表示</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">自动地</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">、</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">自力地</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Ne venos rato mem al kato. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(谚语)耗子是不会自动向猫跑来的。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>La vivo mem jam solvis la problemon. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">生活自身已经解决了这个问题。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li amas </SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">in pli ol sin mem. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他爱她胜过爱自己。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>g. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">副词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ajn</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(任何)也总是放在它所强调的词的后面。它有两个主要作用:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>a) </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">用在关系代词或关系副词的后面,表示</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">无论</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">不管</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Kiu ajn tion diris al vi, estas malsa</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ulo. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">对你说这话的人,不管是谁都是傻子。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Spertaj esperantistoj skribas per stilo preska</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ŭ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> simila, al kiu ajn nacio ili apartenas. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">有经验的世界语者,不管他是哪个民族的,所写的文体几乎都是相似的。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Kiam ajn vi venos, mi vin volonte akpcetos. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">无论你什么时候来,我都乐意接待你。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Kien ajn li forkuros, oni lin trovos. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他不管逃到哪里,人们都会找到他。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>b) </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">用在不定代词或不定形容词之后,表示</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">任何(一个)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">随便(哪个)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">"</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li ne volas vidi iun ajn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他不愿见任何人。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Vi povas veni iam ajn. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">你什么时候来都可以。</SPAN></P>
<P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0px 10px; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%" align=justify><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">8. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">介词、数词在词组中的位置是固定不变的。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>post tri tagoj </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">三天后</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">(不可受汉语的影响任意改为</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">tri tagoj post</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">,但可以说</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">tri tagojn poste</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">;在后一种说法中,</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">poste</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">已经不是介词,而是副词了。)</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>9. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">连词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">ke</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">的位置也是固定不变的:它只能放在所连接的名词性从句和副词性从句的前面。例如:</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Li diris, ke lia patro estas in</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĝ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">eniero. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">他说他父亲是工程师。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Estas gratulinde, ke vi riloltis tian brilan sukceson. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">你们获得如此辉煌成就,值得庆贺。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Estas frosto ekstere, e</SPAN><FONT face=Arial><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black">ĉ</SPAN></FONT><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"> la hundo ne volis eliri sur la stranton. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">外面冷得连狗都不愿上街。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR>Trapiku lin, ke li falu. </SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">把他刺倒。</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><BR></SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">以上所讲到的只是一些主要的词序安排原则。除此之外,还有不少和汉语习惯不同的其他语序安排规则,如修饰不定代词</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">io</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">的形容词需要放在</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">io</SPAN><SPAN style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial">之后,不定式动词作定语时通常应该放在被修饰的名词之后,等等。这些具体的词序规则是可以在世界语阅读中逐渐学会并能养成使用习惯的。</SPAN></P></DIV>
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